SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
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• First year Courses

370.1101 Introduction to pharmacy and pharmacy ethics
This course provides the students with a survey of the profession of pharmacy including its history, development, scope of practice, educational requirements, ethical foundations, regulation, contemporary issues, career opportunities, and prospects for the future.

370.1102 Physical Pharmacy 1
Physical pharmacy has been associated with the area of pharmacy that deals with the quantitative and theoretical principles of science as they apply the practice of pharmacy to develop new drug spectroscopic methods, X-ray crystallography and thermodynamics in pharmaceutical systems.

370.1103 Physical Pharmacy 2
The course will cover the physicochemical properties of drugs, electrolytes, and theories of solutions, kinetics, surface phenomena, rheology, and fundamental principles of new drug design and evaluation. It is a continuation of the course, Physical Pharmacy 1.

370.1104 Pharmaceutical Analysis 1
This course is structured to provide students with the concept of general theory of analytical chemistry and its application for chemical characterization and impurity profiling of drugs.

370.1105 Pharmaceutical Analysis 2
This course will focus on the principles of separation and identification of drug molecules. Topics will include chemical characterization of drugs, analysis of pharmaceutical preparation using various spectroscopic methods such as NMR, IR, and mass spectroscopy, principles of chromatographic separation techniques such as HPLC, GC, CE etc, and analytical methods related to quality control.

370.1106 Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
The course provides the basic principles of organic chemistry for the drug discovery and development. The lectures cover structures, nomenclatures, and physicochemical properties of chemicals as well as stereochemistry, spectroscopy, functional group reactivity and reactions.

370.1107 Pharmaceutical Chemistry 2
The course provides the fundamental principles of organic chemistry for the drug design and discovery. The lectures cover functional group reactivity and reactions as well as physicochemical properties of organic chemicals and biomolecules and their structurebioactivity relationships.

370.1108 Biochemistry 1
Biochemistry deals with the chemical processes that go on in living matters. As such, this course will focus on the chemistry of biological materials, the dynamics and energetics of biological systems.

370.1109 Biochemistry 2
This course concerns the metabolism of the organic constituents of living organisms, vitamins, coenzymes, biooxidation, metabolism of three essential nutrients (proteins, fats, and carbohydrates), and metabolic control by hormones as well as the basic principles of blood circulation, digestion, absorption by the gastrointestinal tract, functions of the liver and kidneys, metabolism of water and salts, chemistry of respiration, immunochemistry, and tissue chemistry.

370.1110 Human Anatomy for Pharmacists
This course introduces the morphology of our body parts. Thus, gross anatomy is a major course, which tells shapes, locations and functions of bones, muscles, nerves, arteries as well as internal organs. In addition, microanatomy that dissects out microstructures in tissues or organs will also be introduced. Introductory embryology is also introduced.

370.1111 Physiology for Pharmacists
This lecture introduces how organs work in our body. Specifically, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, renal physiology, endocrinology, and neurophysiology will be instructed. Integrated responses to various situations among organs are instructed. In addition, membrane potentials, transport mechanism through membrane, and muscle contraction will also be instructed in this course.

370.1112 Cell Biology and Genetics
The fundamental structures and functions of cells in higher organisms will be instructed. The molecular details of intracellular signal transduction pathways, which connect extracellular stimuli to gene expression, cell cycle progression and differentiation, will be lectured. Also, human diseases that are associated with the aberrant regulation of important cellular structures and signals will be introduced with a focus on the pharmaceutical treatment.

370.1113 Pharmaceutical Laboratory 1
The course covers the basic experiments on Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Analysis, and Physical Pharmacy. 5 weeks will be assigned to each three areas.

370.1114 Pharmaceutical Laboratory 2
The course covers the basic experiments on Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical Natural Products, and Synthetic Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Five weeks will be assigned to each three areas.

370.1201 Synthetic Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
The course provides the application of inorganic reactions, halogenation, nitration, sulfonation, amination, amidation, reaction of aromatic diazonium salt, and oxidation to the synthesis of basic medicine.

370.1202 Pharmacognosy 1
This course will cover the introduction of crude drugs and pharmacognosy, the history of crude drug and their chemistry, biosynthesis and pharmacological activities. This course will focus on the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in crude drug

370.1203 Microbiology and Imunology 1
This course will cover pathogenic microorganisms essential for pharmacists to know and the microbes used to produce antibiotics and physiologically active constituents.

370.1204 Preventive Pharmacy 1
This course will provide general knowledge of toxicokinetics, mechanisms of actions, and toxicological evaluation of environmental chemicals in various media including foods, air, and drugs. Furthermore, risk assessment, which is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations exposed to certain chemicals, will be discussed in the context of public health,.

• Second year Courses

370.2101 Synthetic Pharmaceutical Chemistry 2
The course provides the application of inorganic reactions, halogenation, nitration, sulfonation, amination, amidation, reaction of aromatic diazonium salt, and oxidation to the synthesis of basic medicine.

370.2102 Pharmacognosy 2
As a continuation of the course Pharmacognosy 1, this course will focus on crude drug derived from leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, herbs and extracts and their plant sources, morphological descriptions, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities.

370.2103 Microbiology and Imunology 2
This course will cover the essential knowledge of pathogenic microorganisms for pharmacists and microbes used to produce antibiotics and physiologically active constituents.

370.2104 Preventive Pharmacy 2
Foods contain nutrients that are essential for growth, health, and survival of organisms. This course will equip students with general knowledge on consuming a wide variety of balanced diet, the physiological importance of each nutrient in health and disease, and the interaction of drug-nutrient for the pharmacist in the future.

370.2105 Pharmacology 1
In this course, students will study the general principles and mechanisms of drug actions including those that influence the absorption, distribution, biotransformation (metabolism), and excretion of drugs. Clinical applications, adverse effects, drug toxicity, and structureactivity relationship will also be discussed. A focus will be made on the pharmacology of the autonomic nervous system, central nervous system, and autacoids.

370.2106 Pharmacology 2
As a continuation of the course Pharmacognosy I, this course will focus on the pharmacology of cardiovascular, renal, chemotherapeutic, and endocrine systems.

370.2107 Pharmaceutics 1
This course will deal with the principles and practices of dispensation, preparation, storage, and distribution of pharmaceuticals.

370.2108 Pharmaceutics 2
This course will deal with drug disposition and drug availability to the human or animal body from a given dosage form. The time course of drugs in the body and the quantification of drug concentration patterns will be explained through pharmacokinetics.

370.2109 Pathology for Pharmacists
A fundamental consideration of disease process is done in this course. An emphasis is placed on causative mechanism, the progress and effects of disease, and the structural and functional changes association with pathological disturbance.

370.2110 Pharmaceutical Statistics
This course will deal with fundamental statics for the scientific manipulation of the experimental data in the pharmaceutical sciences.

370.2111 Pharmaceutical Laboratory 3
The course covers the basic experiments on Microbiology and Immunology, Biochemistry, and Preventive Pharmacy. 5 weeks will be assigned to each three areas.

370.2112 Pharmaceutical Laboratory 4
The course covers the basic experiments on Anatomy-Physiology-Pathology, Pharmacology, and Pharmaceutics. Five weeks will be assigned to each of the three areas.

370.2113 Introduction of Clinical Pharmacy 1
This is an essential class in which students will master the basic concept and knowledge of pharmaceutical care and clinical pharmacy to establish the fundamentals and skills required as a clinical pharmacist. Students will master from the basics of pharmacist profession, clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical care to medical terminology, prescription compounding system, drug utility review, comprehension and evaluation of laboratory values and patient drug monitoring -the principals required for a clinical pharmacist.

370.2114 Introduction of Clinical Pharmacy 2
In this class, students will master the basic concept of evidence based pharmacy (EBP) and learn how to practice EBP in the clinical setting. Students will not only master the skill to collect, analyze and evaluate drug information utilized in pharmacy fields, but also review the different types of clinical information, database and resources and their application in clinical practice.

370.2115 Medicinal Chemistry 1
The course covers the basic principles of drug mechanism at the molecular level and overall understanding of drug discovery and development. This course deals with the structure analysis of drug targets, physicochemical properties of drug, drug-receptor interaction, quantitative structure activity relationship, drug design, molecular modeling, pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, prodrug, new drug development process.

370.2116 Industrial Pharmacy and Good Manufacturing Practice
This course deals with the principles and practices of pharmaceutical operations and the technical implication of good manufacturing practices in Korea. These concern such things as buildings and facilities, personnel, components, production and control of records, standard operation procedures, packaging and labeling operation, laboratory control, distribution records, stability, and expiration date.

370.2117 Pharmacopeia and Quality Control
This course covers pharmacopeia, which is a collection of formularies that each nation standardizes to maintain the strength, purity, and quality of drugs.

370.2118 Law in Pharmacy Practice
The course covers laws that impact and regulate the practice of pharmacy. Topics include the regulation of medications, regulation of controlled substances, and regulation of pharmacy practice. A detailed evaluation of the regulations pertaining to pharmacy may help the students in preparing for their Pharmacy Examinations, and in understanding the diverse legal issues impacting future professional practice.

• Third year Courses

370.3101 Pharmacotherapy 1
In this course about Gastrointestinal, Hepatic and Renal Disorder Pharmacotherapy, students will master clinical, pharmaceutical knowledge and skills of the scientific approach of monitoring drug effects/side-effects, and finding and managing drug induced diseases, to assure optimal pharmacotherapy in treating the diseases covered in this module. Case analysis and presentation class will proceed concurrently with each disease state to let students develop presentation skills and application skills of clinical pharmaceutical knowledge.

370.3102 Pharmacotherapy 2
In this course about Respiratory, Circulatory and Endocrinology Pharmacotherapy, students will master clinical pharmaceutical knowledge and skills of the scientific approach of monitoring drug effects/side-effects and finding and managing drug induced diseases, to assure optimal pharmacotherapy in treating the diseases covered in this module. Case analysis and presentation class will proceed concurrently with each disease state to let students develop presentation skills and application skills of clinical pharmaceutical knowledge.

370.3103 Pharmacotherapy 3
In this course about Nervous system, Psychiatry and Immune- Transplantation Pharmacotherapy, students will master clinical pharmaceutical knowledge and skills of the scientific approach of monitoring drug effects/side-effects and finding and managing drug induced diseases, to assure optimal pharmacotherapy in treating the diseases covered in this module. Case analysis and presentation class will proceed concurrently with each disease state to let students develop presentation skills and application skills of clinical pharmaceutical knowledge.

370.3104 Pharmacotherapy 4
In this course of Infectious Disease and Oncology Pharmacotherapy, students will master clinical pharmaceutical knowledge and skills of the scientific approach to monitoring drug effects/side-effects and finding and managing drug induced diseases, to assure optimal pharmacotherapy in treating the diseases covered in this module. Case analysis and presentation class will proceed concurrently with each disease state to let students develop presentation skills and application skills of clinical pharmaceutical knowledge.

370.3105 Herbal Therapeutics
The course covers herb-drug interactions, natural products as a resource for established and new drugs, alternative therapies, herbal therapeutics, relationship between traditional medicine and natural products, safety of herbal drugs, and dietary supplements.

370.3106 Industry Pharmacy Practicum
This is a four-week (160hours) course designed for students to gain hands on experience of drug development and drug administrative work. Students will learn to understand and master the roles of pharmacists working in this field. Students will undertake a 3 week (120 hours) field work at a pharmaceutical company to develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed as a pharmacist working in new drug development, drug manufacturing, and quality assessment departments. Students will also have a one-week (60 hours) field experience at a drug administration agency to develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed as a pharmacist working in drug safety administration, drug cost and health insurance administration, drug exclusivity administration and public health administration departments.

370.3107 Community Pharmacy Practicum
This is a four-week (160 hours) practicum for community pharmacy practice in which students will master pharmaceutical knowledge and effective decision making skills to resolve pharmaceutical problems encountered in patient treatment. Students will develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary of a post graduate community pharmacy pharmacist through practicing prescription review, compounding, patient education and OTC drug information provision services to patients.

370.3108 Hospital Pharmacy Practicum
This is a four-week (160 hours) practicum for hospital pharmacy practice in which students will master pharmaceutical knowledge and effective decision making skills needed to resolve pharmaceutical problems encountered in patient treatment. Students will develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary of a post graduate healthcare system pharmacist through practicing inpatient, outpatient and parenteral prescription review, compounding, patient education, drug information and pharmacy administration services.

370.3109 Pharmacotherapy Laboratory 1
This problem-based laboratory course utilizes the basics of the Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapy for students to apply their clinical knowledge, skills and attitude to solve pharmaceutical care problems through effective decision making process to optimize the desired outcomes in patients with gastrointestinal, endocrinologic, cardiovascular, neurologic, rheumatologic, gynecologic and nutrition disorders.

370.3110 Pharmacotherapy Laboratory 2
This problem-based laboratory course is a continuation of Pharmacotherapy Laboratory I, that utilizes the basics of the Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapy for students to apply their clinical knowledge, skills and attitude to solve pharmaceutical care problems through effective decision making process to optimize the desired outcomes in patients with renal, oncologic, hematologic, infectious, respiratory, immunologic, dermatologic and ophthalmic disorders.

376.301 Molecular Oncology
Cancer is one of the most threatening diseases for the health of human beings in 21st century, and the incidence rate of cancer is growing more and more in this aging society. Characteristics of normal and cancer cells, causing factors of cancer, biochemical and molecular biological basis of carcinogenesis, functions of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chemotherapy and prevention of cancer, mechanism of anti-cancer drug and its clinical applications will be discussed in depth in this class.

376.302 Cellular Signal Transduction
Cellular biological and biochemical researches and methodologies have been rapidly developed for understanding cellular signal transduction, which is essential in controlling cellular functions. Cellular growth and differentiation, cellar signal transduction, and its mechanism of control will be discussed in depth. Application of researches and clinical approaches will be connected and further understood on the basis of knowledge obtained from this class.

376.303 Advanced Pharmacology in Biological Topics
This course covers the pharmacological effects of drugs at the levels of biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology, and bio-pharmaceutics. The goal of this course is to study the general mechanisms of drug actions and their side effects. Lectures are coordinated by different professors in different majors of biological pharmacy, covering the topics of biochemical effects of drugs, the role of nuclear receptors and drug transporters, cell signaling pathways, and physiological functions.

376.304 Biotechnology in Pharmacy
This course will provide students with applications of modern biotechnology to diverse areas including the development of pharmaceuticals, food production, control of environmental contamination, and forensic science. Topics will cover: introduction to the structures and functions of the DNA; basic principles and applications as well as historical perspectives of recombinant DNA technology; development and application of polymerase chain reaction and DNA finger printing; scientific, regulatory, and ethical issues related to the human genome project.

376.305 Natural Product Chemistry
This course will cover methods of separation, purification, and identification of various plant constituents. The historical development, structures and biosynthesis of plant active constituents will also be emphasized.

376.306 Medicinal Plants and Practice
Medicinal plants are rapidly regaining the prominent position because they possess biologically active constituents, and are utilized to develop new drugs across the world. This course focuses on taxonomy, uses and application of medicinal plants

376.307 Forensic Pharmacy
Forensic pharmaceutical analysis is the application of pharmaceutical sciences that uses basic knowledge of pharmaceutical analytical chemistry to legal issues that are closely associated with the criminal justice system. This course is structured to provide the student with the basic concept of genetics and a strong foundation in the related analytical techniques for identification of individual genetic information. Various analytical techniques for investigation of toxicological properties of specific drugs will also be addressed.

376.308 Neuropharmacology
The course covers the basic principles of effects and adverse effects of drug in central nervous system (CNS). The goal of this course is to discuss the research skills and actions of drugs in CNS dependent biological phenomena. This course lectures on the structures, normal/abnormal functions of CNS and relating disorders and its'therapeutic approaches.

376.309 Biochemical Pharmacology
Biochemical Pharmacology focuses on the pharmacological and toxicological effects of xenobiotics at the levels of biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology. The goal of this course is to discuss the actions of drugs, toxicants and xenobiotics in living organisms. The course will deal will the topics of the set-up of hypothesis, the establishment of research systems, and the creativity in the science and the research tools and methods. Especially, this lecture will deals with the interactions of drugs and cellular macromolecules including enzymes and receptors at the molecular and cellular levels.

376.310 Target Organ Toxicity
A baffling array of different toxicities may be induced in various organs of the body by chemical substances to which we are exposed. All tissues are susceptible in varying degrees to these toxic effects, but many chemicals exhibit a marked propensity to damage specific organs. An understanding of the ability of some chemicals to cause these organ-specific lesions or target organ toxicities is the primary objective of this class. General principles of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, and carcinogenicity as well as factors contributing to organ specific toxicity such as toxicokinetics, metabolic activation, species difference, tissue-specific biochemistry will be introduced.

376.311 Free Radicals in Health and Diseases
Free radicals such as oxygen and carbon-centered radicals are generated endogeneously and/or exogeneously in humans. Due to their high reactivity with macromolecules including DNA, proteins, and lipids, they can damage cells and tissues, finally leading to various chronic degenerative diseases. This course will introduce the sources of free radicals generated in the cells and recent technology to detect free radicals, and provide a number of examples for toxic insults resulting from free radicals.

376.312 Pediatric Pharmaceutical Care
Pediatric patients are not adult miniatures: they have different physiological and pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) characteristics from adults, showing a totally different effect/side-effects by the same drug. In this class, students will master the pharmacokinetic and pharmaco dynamic characteristics of pediatric patients and learn about the pediatrics based pharmacy service to be able to provide optimal pharmacotherapy in this set of population.

376.313 Medicinal Chemistry 2
The course covers the organic chemistry of drug design and drug action. This course covers drug discovery, design and development, receptor and ligands, enzyme mechanism, enzyme inhibitors, DNA interactive agents, drug metabolism, and prodrug.

376.314 Recent Pharmaceutical Chemistry
This course introduces advanced recent theories and technologies needed for the drug and target discovery. The principles of combinatorial chemistry and chemical biology together with the design and synthesis of chemical probe, chemical affinity matrix, and chemical library and their applications will be discussed in the class.

376.315 Pharmacy Adminstration
The purpose of this course is to introduce the pharmacy students, in an organized way, to the most vital, dynamic, challenging, and rewarding of the health professions and the health sciences. Students will be trained as a pharmaceutical scientist and you will have a general appreciation of not only the practice of pharmacy, but the environment in which pharmacy operates. This course focuses on issues related to the practice of pharmacy and issues related to the pharmaceutical industry (broadly defined).

376.316 Introduction to Pharmacoeconomics
This course provides students with the current state-of-the-art valuing of pharmaceuticals. Pharmacoeconomics is widely used in the area of pharmaceutical industry and policy-making decision. After this course, student will be able to understand the identification, valuation, and the synthesis of costs and benefits of drug treatments. The principles of economics, assessment criteria of clinical literatures and methodologies like cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis are offered. Attention is also given on the discount, QALY, and decision rules of the economic evaluation results.

372.301 Biological drugs
A biological drug is a substance that is made from a living organism or its products to be used in the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of various diseases. Biological drugs include recombinant proteins, antibodies, vaccines and gene therapy. We will discuss the current understanding of biological drugs and their prospect.

372.302 Principles in Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Absorption, distribution and elimination are the determinants for drug concentrations in the body; temporal profiles of the concentrations are typically expressed in forms of mathematical equations. In this lecture, theoretical basis and relevance will be discussed for major pharmacokinetic models. Furthermore, recent literatures on clinical pharmacokinetics will be presented.

372.303 Medicinal Immunobiology
This course will cover various immunotherapies, vaccines, and immunopathology focusing on recent theoretical advances in immunology.

372.304 Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry
The course provides the fundamental principles of organic chemistry needed for the drug development and synthesis. The retrosynthetic analysis of bioactive chemicals and natural products is also important topic of this course. The structural features and synthetic approaches of olefin and 3-9 membered carbocycles will be discussed in this course. In addition, their synthetic applications to bioactive molecules including natural products will be discussed.

372.305 Dosage Form Design
Each particular pharmaceutical product is a formulation unique to a given product. In addition to the active therapeutic ingredient(s), a pharmaceutical formulation contains a number of non-therapeutic ingredients (i.e., pharmaceutical excipients). Although these ingredients are generally intended to give a characteristic physical appearance, they also control therapeutic activity of the dosage form by affecting absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of active ingredient(s). Therefore, a thorough understanding on the performance and impacts of excipients is necessary for a successful formulation. Backgrounds and up-to-date information on formulation of dosage forms shall be discussed in this lecture.

372.306 NMR in Pharmacy
The theory and application of NMR spectroscopy concerning the structure determination of biological compounds (proteins and nucleic acids) will be studied in this course.

372.307 A History on Drug Discovery
The course covers the past history of the process of drug discovery and development of pharmaceutical companies. The stories of about 50 innovative drugs are covered in the lecture. The lecture also includes the understanding of the human stories of inventors and the impact on human life and the society brought by medicinal compounds.

372.308 Introduction to Bioactive Natural Products
Recently, attention to bioactive natural products originating from plants is gradually increasing. Attempts have been made to develop new drugs or nutraceuticals from these bioactive compounds. This lecture will be covered on the discussion of pharmacological activities of biaoactive natural products with high potentials as drug-likeness.

372.309 Bioactivity of Natural Products
This course will discuss the bioassay systems for the evaluation of bioactivity from natural products with the cell cultures and animal models. This course will encourage students to learn the principle of assay systems, analysis of experimental data and techniques, the appropriate designs for different experimental methods.

372.310 Microbial Natural Products Drugs
The course covers developed or developing drugs derived from microbial natural products. The goal of this course is to identify structural classes of microbial natural products and to study their chemistry and bioactivity. This course also discusses pharmaceutical and bioengineering applications of microbial natural products.

372.311 Medicinal Molecular and Cellular Genetics
This class will address how human genome works at molecular and cellular levels and how genomic variations are linked to human diseases. The class will also discuss how the information and knowledge of human genomics are used for drug discovery.

• Fourth year Courses

370.4101 Clinical Pharmacy Practicum
This is a four-week (160 hours) course of hands on learning in hospital pharmacy. Students will master pharmaceutical knowledge and effective decision making skills needed to resolve pharmaceutical problems encountered in patient treatment. Students will develop advanced knowledge, skills and attitudes required of a post graduate healthcare system pharmacist through experiencing clinical pharmacokinetics practice, total parenteral nutrition practice, anti-coagulant service practice, drug utilization and quality control practice, and clinical study monitoring practice.

370.4102 Inpatient Care Practicum
This is a four-week (160 hours) course of hands on learning in hospital pharmacy. Students will master pharmaceutical knowledge and effective decision making skills needed to resolve pharmaceutical problems encountered in patient treatment. Students will develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary of a post graduate healthcare system pharmacist by participating in drug therapy and roundings at the department of internal medicine and general surgery, provision of drug information and drug utilization review to other medical staff, group patient education and clinical investigations.

370.4104 Pharmaceutical Research 1
This course consists of discussions during which faculty members and the student choose a research topic, which the student will follow through by carrying out experiments.

370.4105 Pharmaceutical Research 2
This course consists of discussions during which faculty members and the student choose a research topic, which the student will follow through by carrying out experiments.

376.401 Biochemistry of Human Metabolism
This class seeks to understand mechanistic action and regulation of hormone and enzymes of metabolism involved in human homeostasis, with emphasis on their roles in carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipid synthesis and metabolism. In addition, the cases of human diseases and their cures and drug targets can be discussed.

376.402 Pharmaceutical Endocrinology
Pharmaceutical endocrinology focuses on hormones and endocrine glands, which play important roles in homeostasis, regulation of gene expression and control of growth and differentiation. The major hormone systems including peptide and steroid hormones, the mechanism of hormone action, the physiology of endocrine glands is instructed in this course. Also pathophysiological and molecular causes of the endocrine associated metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and the related pharmaceutics will be studied.

376.403 Pharmacy of Cellular Functions
These days the cutting-edge technologies responsible for rapid developments in cellular biological and biochemical researches have resulted in the accumulation of knowledge of cell itself in the levels of molecules and in a format of revealing of cellular mechanisms underlying for regulation of cell functions. This class will be based on review of the past research and current research, to update the scientific knowledge and methodology. This course will provide students with concrete understanding of cellular functions and their regulation mechanism in connection with or for understanding clinical approaches and information.

376.404 Herbal Medicinal Product Research
This course will cover all aspects of herbal medicinal product including quality control, efficacy and safety. This course will focus on an in-depth discussion of recent advances in knowledge and scientific techniques of herbal medicinal product research and development.

376.405 Bioactive Natural Products Research
This course will cover the principles and methods to screen the various activities from natural products. This course will focus on the in vitro and in vivo screening methods and bioactivityguided fractionation techniques.

376.406 Instrumental Analysis 1
In pharmaceutical research, a wide and impressive array of powerful and elegant instrumental tools is used for obtaining qualitative and quantitative information about the composition and structure of matter. Development of an understanding of the basic principles of these instrumental tools and their practical applications is a must for solving analytical problems in this field. This course will focus on the theoretical principles of instrumental analysis and their practical applications in pharmaceutical research. The fundamental principles of operation of modern analytical instruments and the basic theory of their applications are covered. These instruments include NMR, IR, UV/Vis, GC/MS, LC/MS, Fluorescence, Polarimeter, AA. ICP, ORD/CD, Thermal analyzer, Elemental analyzer, GC, HPLC, IC, Amino acid analyzer, SEM, Centrifuge, NO analyzer, Bio analyzer system, Flow cytometer, DNA sequencer, LSC, Gamma counter, Luminometer, Freeze dryer, Water purification system, Centrifugal evaporator, X-ray, and mp apparatus, etc. The objective of this course is to give students a thorough introduction to the basic principles of various analytical instruments, sample preparation, as well as to broaden their knowledge through literature search for making appropriate choices and efficient use of these instruments.

376.407 Principles of Optical Diagnostic Contrast Agents
This subject deals with synthetic methods and applications of multifuntional optical contrast agents used for cancer diagnosis and monitoring of drug efficacy. As diagnostic non-invasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance(MR), positron emission tomography(PET) and single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) develop relevant contrast agents are being actively developed to improve diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy. Recently, nanoparticle-based optical constrast agents are used for drug screening based on optical imaging. Quantum dot, gold and silica nanoparticles are highly sensitive, photostable, noninvasive, and non-ionizing. They are capable of being biocompatible and selectively delivered to specific target molecules by surface functionalization, and this leads to their effective use for cancer diagnosis and relevant anticancer drug screening. The optical contrast agents have intrinsic therapeutic property or can be conjugated to therapeutic agents. This allows for the optical contrast agents to be used as multifunctional agents that enable both diagnosis and therapy simultaneously. This subject provides understanding of fundamental principles involved in syntheses and surface functionalization of optical contrast agents and introduces their applications to drug screening and biomedical field.

376.408 Toxicology
Numerous xenobiotics, such as drugs and environmental chemicals, play a role in controlling physiological activity and are known to closely correlate with cellular toxicity and diseases, including inflammation and cancer. This course aims at providing students with a better understanding of the fundamental physiological mechanisms by new endogenous molecules and the relevant evaluation for its biological safety.

376.409 Geriatrics Pharmaceutical Care
With aging, geriatric subjects undergo physiological changes and record higher rates of chronic diseases. These changes affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs, leading to totally different effect/side-effects from normal adults. In this class, students will master the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of geriatric patients and learn about geriatric based pharmacy service so as to provide optimal pharmacotherapy to this population.

376.410 Clinical Nutritional Science
Nutrition is crucial in clinical practice not only because poor nutrition can lead to disease state, but also because nutrients can affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in human body, causing different drug effect/side-effects. In this class, students will master the causes, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments of water, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance. Students will also learn about the concept and method of total parenteral nutrition(TPN) to be able to supply appropriate calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, micro-nutrients and vitamins to patients according to their disease status.

376.411 Advanced Pharmaceutical Chemistry
The course provides fundamental principles of organic chemistry needed for drug design and synthesis. The physicochemical properties of organic chemicals and biomolecules, their structure-bioactivity relationships and metabolic transformation of drugs are basic topics of lectures. The retrosynthetic analysis of complex chemicals is also an important topic of this course.

376.412 Economics and Behavior of the Pharmaceutical Industry
The pharmaceutical industry has played an important role in the intellectual industry of modern society. This course introduces various topics in economics of pharmaceutical industry, including market structure, R&D, regulation, and economic impact of pharmaceuticals. Students will understand policy issues pertaining to the pharmaceutical sectors, together with evaluations of the industry performance.

376.413 Pharmaceutical Molecular Biology
This course includes the characterization of human diseases and newly developed therapies. The course also focuses on a variety of technologies to develop new drugs on the basis of molecular biology and functional genomics. Especially, the functions and interactions among the genes and/or proteins elucidated by the completion of the human genome project will be discussed. New concepts of technologies for drug development such as molecular prevention from complex human diseases and gene therapy will be included.

376.414 Advanced Pharmacognosy
This course will cover an in-depth discussion of recent advances in our knowledge of pharmacognosy and natural product industry.

376.415 Instrumental Analysis 2
Analysis of drug formulations, structural analysis, and separation and impurity profiling of bulk drugs are not only important for drug discovery, but also for their production and quality control. This course emphasizes the application of modern spectroscopic techniques such as NMR, IR, UV/Vis, and Mass for structural analysis of substances. This course aims to impart knowledge on how to obtain structural information using spectroscopic references. This course introduces students to the basic principles of instrumental analysis, with a special emphasis on gaining an advanced knowledge of spectroscopy. The curriculum includes the following topics: the theory of various separation technology including solvent extraction, column chromatography, planar chromatography, HPLC, GC, SFC, CE, IC, counter current chromatography, sample preparation, optimization of separation process, data analysis and interpretation.

376.416 Pharmacoproteomics and Pharmacometabolomics
Pharmaceutical sciences need to be understood at the molecular level and an analytical method that can be used to quantify the interactions and biological activities of proteome and metabolome are important for this purpose. Pharmacoproteomics and pharmacometabolomics, which will be discussed in this class, are two fields of analytical chemistry that delineate the interactions between drugs and proteome and/or metabolome through global or targeted analysis of proteome and metabolome in a biological system when drug is administered as an external stimulus. To aid the understanding of these research fields, important concepts on a variety of key topics will be introduced and the topics to be covered are as follows: extraction of proteome/metabolome, 2-dimensional electrophoresis, nano high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) - mass spectrometry, high throughput screening using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), identification and quantification of proteome using proteome database, identification and quantification of metabolome using metabolome library, and application of systems biology-related statistical algorithm.

376.417 Drug Receptor Theory
The goal of this course is to understand the receptor concept as the primary information transmission system. This course covers information on the receptors that are expressed in tissues, cells and other physiological system. In this course, students are encouraged to discuss recent articles published in international journals relating to Drug Receptor Theories.

376.418 Molecular Pharmacology
Molecular Pharmacology is the science that focuses on the drug actions and toxicities at the levels of molecules. This course focuses on the drug-macromolecular interactions (i.e. drugreceptor interaction and drug-enzyme interaction) and lectures on the receptor theory, the biochemistry of drug metabolism, cellular signaling pathways, protein-nucleic acids interaction, drug-induced gene regulation and so on.

376.419 Ion Channels and Diseases
Membrane potential is the potential difference between cell membrane. Action potentials are required for the functions of neurons, muscle cells and glandular cells. Thus, in this course, how membrane potential is formed and how one can predict the change in membrane potentials. Ion channels are critical in changing or shaping membrane potentials. Therefore, various ion channels and their shapes, functions and biophysical properties are introduced in this course. In addition, chronic diseases caused by mal-functions of ion channels are also introduced.

376.420 Protein Therapeutics Development
Biopharmaceutics refer to macromolecules derived from living organisms, therapeutic proteins generally taking the most of the part. At present, high market growth rate of such therapeutic proteins is attracting many companies to thrust into the market. In this course, the characteristics of the development of recent protein therapeutics are summarized, and the series of developing process is discussed in industrial, academic, and regulatory point of view.

376.421 Molecular Pathophysiology
The Molecular pathophysiology is the study of elucidating disease process at the molecular level and explains the sequence of events in the response of the cells or tissues to etiologic agent by means of interaction with molecules. This course introduces recent research trends classified according to their main theme and presents pathophysiological understandings of disease.

376.422 Defense Mechanism against Chemical-induced Toxicity
The chemicals exposed to human undergo metabolic activation and free radical generation leading to functional alterations, structural damages, and chronic diseases. This course will review several recent technology including toxicogenomics, metabolomics, etc to detect chemical-induced toxicity, and discuss the important current issues related on defense mechanism against its toxicity.

376.423 Introduction to Clinical Pharmacogenomics
Clinical pharmacogenomics is an important component of personalized medicine which utilizes the understanding of individual genetic characteristics to predict the inter-individual variability in drug effect/side-effects. In this class, students will master the basic concept and history of clinical pharmacogenomics and learn how to practice clinical pharmacogenomics in the drug development and clinical setting. Also, to develop presentation skills and application skills of clinical pharmacogenomics knowledge and techniques, students will concurrently proceed with the curricular education with presentation classes based on important genes for disease progression and pharmacotherapy.

376.424 Clinical Trial Methodology
In this class, students will master the basic concepts of clinical trials and clinical trial data management, and perform basic statistical analysis with the collected data. Students will also learn how to run a clinical trial(determine study design and number of subjects) and develop the ability to evaluate and review clinical trial literatures.

376.425 Drug & Society
This course deals with historical development of the profession, its growth and development, emphasizing forces of education, professionalization, attitude modification and changes occurring as a product of legal and organizational forces in society. This course is for those interested in careers as drug researcher, clinical pharmacist and drug policy maker in the future.

372.401 Biotransformation and Delivery of Drugs
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are one of the major reasons for withdrawal from market during post marketing surveillance and/or for complication in pharmacotherapy; underlying reasons for DDI are interactions at levels of carrier-mediated transport and/or biotransformation. In this lecture, biological characteristics and pharmacokinetic/ pharmacological relevances of carriermediated transports and biotransformations will be discussed. Furthermore, recent literatures on transporters and metabolizing enzymes will be presented.

372.402 Process Chemistry for Pharmaceutics
This course will cover the development of economically and enviromentally optimal synthetic process for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals by using synthetic unit reactions such as carbon-carbon, carbon- oxygen, and carbon-nitrogen bond formations.

372.403 Organic Reaction Chemistry
This course introduces advanced recent theories and technologies needed for the drug and target discovery. The principles of combinatorial chemistry and chemical biology together with the design and synthesis of chemical probe, chemical affinity matrix, and chemical library and their applications will be discussed in the class. The general organic reaction mechanisms will be studied in this course through an introduction to the physical, organic, and chemical properties of organic reaction such as substitution and elimination reactions. New organic reaction mechanisms and their applications will be studied in this course through an introduction to the physical, organic, and chemical properties of new organic reactions.

372.404 Biopharmaceutics
Pharmacokinetics, a major determinant of therapeutic activity, is primarily governed by the characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). Such characteristics are a result of complex interactions between drug and body, mainly drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes. Therefore, understanding the function and diversity of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes is essential not only in the prediction of therapeutic activity and its variation, but also in setting strategies for successful drug discovery/development. Up-to-date biopharmaceutical information on drug transporters and metabolizing enzyme shall be discussed in this lecture.

372.405 Pharmaceutical Biomaterials
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to biomaterials used for drug delivery systems and medical devices so that they can understand the role and function of materials used in the biomedical field. In particular, students will learn about such biopolymers as proteins and polysaccarides, as well as synthetic polymers such as polyethylene glycols. Materials to be taught will be separated based on characteristics and structure. For Characteristics, biodegradable polymers, watersoluble polymer and hydrogels will be introduced, and structurally linear and crosslinked polymers will be introduced. The course will deal with the structure of biomaterials, and interaction between matter and drugs. Using examples, students will learn to analyze function of materials, which is to decrease toxicity and increase drug efficiency. In particular, the course will focus on the material characteristics of implantable materials and their interactions with biological systems upon contact. Through this course, students will learn to predict and solve problems in developing drug delivery materials with respect to possible side effects or toxicity from the perspective of materials.

372.406 Pharmaco-Biophysics
According to the completion of human and pathogenic organism, protein, which is final product of gene, is very important for new drug discovery. Cost and time needed for new drug development can be reduced by using SBDD (Structure Based Drug Discovery) technique, in which three-dimensional structures of disease related proteins become very important. This course covers information on X-ray crystallography and NMR methods for SBDD

372.407 Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals
This course introduces functional properties of dietary supplements. It also includes of a global trend and regulations by government agencies.

372.408 Herbalogy
This course will cover the history, pharmaceutical properties, therapeutic effects, application for clinical use, and preparation of herbal medicine that can be applied to pharmaceutical science.

372.409 Marine Natural Products Drugs
The course covers the basic principles of marine natural products and drug developments based on them. The goal of this course is to discuss the diverse aspects of marine natural products as an emerging sources of bioactive compounds. This course consists of the chemical, biological and pharmacological characteristics of marine natural products based on comparison with those of terrestrial metabolites as well as diverse approaches toward drug developments from marine.

372.410 Purification of Bioactive Natural Products
The course covers the methods to isolate natural products with bioactivity. The goal of this course is to understand the principle and methods of extraction, chromatography-based isolation and purification, scale-up, and analysis of purity. This course will raise ability to design isolation schemes of natural products systematically in natural product-based drug development.

372.411 Human-Microbiome Interaction and Therapy
This class will teach the interaction between human and normal or pathological micribiome and study the immunological and infectious diseases. The working mechanims of current and future anti-infective drugs will be also addressed.

372.412 Methodology in Medicinal Immunology
Based on the essential knowledge of 『Medicinal Immunology』, this course will cover the theoretical background and experimental methodology of recently published theses.

372.413 Stereochemistry
This course will cover sterochemical concepts including the characteristics of chemical bonds, steroisomerism and absolute configuration, asymmetric carbon and enantiomer, configurational notations, the symmetry of molecules, and asymmetric synthetic methods of optically active organic compounds.

372.414 Drug Delivery Systems
This course will consist of lectures on theoretical methodology and the selection, application method, and time-release of preparation in order to evaluate, guarantee, and enhance the quality of drugs. Also, this course will cover the factors relevant to the preformulation of pharmaceuticals. Topics will include the solubilization, design of dosage forms, which can control the absorption and distribution of drugs.

372.415 Introduction to Structure Determination of Natural Products
The goal of this course is comprehensive understanding of diverse spectroscopic and chemical methods toward the structure determination of complicate organic compounds e. g. natural products. This course covers the definition and combined application of mostly modern spectroscopic techniques such as NMR, MS, IR, UV, and CD as well as diverse organo-chemical methods applicable to the structure determination.

372.416 Cell Regulation of Bioactive Natural Products
The course covers the cell regulation systems, including intracellular signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, programmed cell death, in relation with the enzymatic action and molecular biochemical effects, to study the functional bioactive natural products.

372.417 Medicinal Systems Biology
Life is complex system operated through diverse interactions between molecules and cells. This class is designed to explain human physiology and pathology at the system level and how systems biology can help to understand human diseases and design the ways to cure diseases.

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